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Thuật ngữ event – phần 1: A đến C

Accepted Practices Exchange (APEX) – an initiative of the Convention Industry Council. The mission of APEX is “To spearhead an industry-wide initiative that brings together all stakeholders in the development and implementation of industry-wide accepted practices which create and enhance efficiencies throughout the meetings, conventions and exhibitions industry.”

Accessibility – availability or approachability for all persons, regardless of a person’s physical or mental limitations

Accommodation – guest bedrooms occupied by meeting attendees

accompanying person – any individual who comes with a participant, not necessarily involved with the meeting sessions; guest or spouse of an attendee

accrual accounting – income is entered when it is earned and expenses are entered when they are incurred, not necessarily when they are paid

acetate– transparent material on which information for an overhead projector is written; available in sheets or rolls

advance registration incentives – complimentary or discounted goods, services, or fees that encourage attendees to register for an event before it actually takes place, done through mail, phone, internet, or fax

agenda -program of things to be done; specifically, a list of things to be dealt with at a meeting

ambient lighting – level of illumination from natural lighting sources already existing in an environment

amenities– complimentary items; often in the guest’s bedroom

amplifier (amp) – device enabling sound to be intensified

ancillary – those events that are in conjunction with the conference/event, such as guest programs

annual general meeting (AGM) – the yearly General Meeting of an association, corporation

attendee – individual registered for a conference; people who actually come are verified attendees

attendee profile – a description of the typical delegate which includes such details as age, sex, point of origin, companions (demographics)

attendee trend – a following of attendee profiles from conference to conference; to determine general tendencies over a period of time

attrition clause – a specific provision in a contract that has been agreed upon in writing by the hotel and the meeting sponsor; provides for payment of damages by the sponsor to the hotel when the sponsor fails to fulfill its specified percentage of contracted room nights or its specified percentage of food and beverage or both

audio visual aids – audio and visual support for meetings, usually taking the form of film, slides, overhead projection, flip charts, sound and video equipment

banquet event order (BEO) – detailed instructions for a particular event prepared by the facility; also known as a résumé sheet or function sheet; includes detailed instructions related to room setups, food and beverage

barrier free – absence of obstacles preventing persons with special needs from moving freely to all public areas within a building

blue lines– a copy of filmed camera ready copy, one of the last stages before printing

boom – Adjustable support for positioning microphones or lighting fixtures.

booth area – amount of floor space occupied by exhibitor; same as exhibition area, stand area

brainstorming – group sessions in which all participants contribute creative ideas which are not initially judged for merit

breakeven point – the point at which revenues match expenditures (e.g., no financial loss is incurred)

breakout session – small group sessions, panels, workshops or presentations, offered concurrently within the meeting, formed to focus on specific subjects; the meeting is apart from the general session, but within the meeting format, formed to focus on specific subjects; these sessions can be arranged by basic, intermediate or advanced; or divided by interest areas or industry segment

bulk mailings – large quantity of mail sent at one time at a special rate

budgetary philosophy – financial expectation of the meeting; generate a profit, break-even, or run at a deficit

budget reconciliation – a comparison of the budgeted figures for the meeting vs the actual figures achieved

call for abstracts – prospectus sent to potential sources of meeting presenter, exhibitors, speakers or panelist

call for papers – an invitation to submit topic ideas for the conference program; document containing detailed instructions for submission of papers for assessment and selection by a review committee; often referred to as “abstract forms”

cancellation clause – 1) provision in a contract which outlines penalties for both parties if cancellation occurs for failure to comply with terms of the agreement; 2) (entertainment) provision with artist’s contract that allows artist to cancel within a specified period of time prior to artist’s play date

carousel tray – circular holder used for projecting 35mm slides; same as round slide tray

cash accounting – a system in which revenue and expenses are counted as they are actually received

cash bar – private room bar set up where guests pay for drinks individually

Certified Meeting Manager (CMM) – Certification program offered by Meeting Professionals International; global certification in meeting management that focuses on strategic thinking and actions for senior level meeting professionals

Certified Meeting Professional (CMP) – accredited designation offered by the Convention Industry Council; this designation certifies competency in 27 areas of meeting management through application and examination

chart of accounts – detailed list of the individual line items that make up the revenue and expense categories in a budget; a numbering system used to identify every line item in a budget, so income and expenses are posted to the correct accounts

client – a customer; may refer to the person/organization hiring the meeting professional

clinic – workshop-type educational experience where attendees learn by doing

communications center – an area in the meeting venue for telephone, fax, Internet, or teleconferencing facilities

complimentary (comp) – service, space or item given at no charge

complete meeting package (CMP) – an all-inclusive plan offered by conference centers; includes lodging, all meals and support services

concurrent session – multiple sessions scheduled at the same time; programs on different themes or subjects offered simultaneously

conference – 1) participatory meeting designed for discussion, fact-finding, problem solving and consultation; 2) an event used by any organization to meet and exchange views, convey a message, open a debate or give publicity to some area of opinion on a specific issue; no tradition, continuity or periodicity is required to convene a conference; although not generally limited in time, conferences are usually of short duration with specific objectives; conferences are generally on a smaller scale than congresses

conference résumé – a detailed summary of overall meeting requirements prepared by the organizers for the facilities and/or suppliers. Also called event résumé, manual of operations

confrontation – efforts of a dissident group to obstruct the conduct of an event

congress – 1) the regular coming together of large groups of individuals, generally to discuss a particular subject; a congress will often last several days and have several simultaneous sessions; the length of time between congresses is usually established in advance of the implementation stage, and can be either pluri-annual or annual; most international or world congresses are of the former type while national congresses are more frequently held annually; 2) meeting of an association of delegates or representatives from constituent organizations; 3) European term for convention

contingency plan – an alternative plan that may replace the original plan when circumstances change

continuing education units (CEUs) – requirement of many professional groups by which members must certify participation in formal educational programs designed to maintain their level of ability beyond their original certification date

contractor – an individual or organization providing services to an exposition and/or its exhibitors; typically refers to either a general service contractor or specialty contractor

contribution margin – amount of the registration fee that is left over once the individual’s variable costs have been covered (e.g. how much each delegate contributes towards the fixed costs of the meeting)

convention – large, national meetings of business circles, whether for discussion or commercial exhibitions or both; may also refer to a general and formal meeting of a legislative body, social, or economic group in order to provide information on a particular situation and in order to deliberate and, consequently, establish consent on policies among the participants

convention and visitors bureau (CVB) – not-for-profit destination marketing organization that represents and promotes a city or geographic area in the solicitation and servicing of all types of travelers to that city or area, whether they visit for business, pleasure or both; CVBs provide destination promotion and sometimes offers personnel, housing control, and other services for meetings and conventions.

corner booth – an exhibit space with exposure on at least two aisles; some shows charge premiums for these corners.

Cover – the number of people served at a food and beverage event, the table setting for one person, or in reference to the number of waiters per cover or person

crescent-round setup – uses 60-, 66- or 72-inch (152-, 168- and 183-centimeter) diameter rounds with seating on two thirds to three quarters of the table and no seating with its back to the speaker; used for banquet-to-meeting or meeting-to-banquet quick set; also called buzz style setup or half-moon seating

crisis management – immediate action to control or direct any situations which become problematic and which would have a major impact on the meeting

critical path – a listing of significant milestones and achievements, by date, necessary to complete a defined plan

crowd control – direction provided to attendees to ensure smooth traffic flow

customs broker – person or company which provides customs clearing services to shippers of goods to and from another country

cut-off date – designated date when the facility will release a block of sleeping rooms to the general public; the date is typically three to four weeks before the convention; also called the reservation review date

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